Today, the United States and Russia each deploy about 1,350 strategic warheads on several hundred bombers and missiles and modernize their nuclear delivery systems. These warheads are counted in accordance with the provisions of the new START agreement, which limits each country to 1,550 strategic warheads and assigns one warhead per heavy bomber, regardless of the number of warheads each bomber carries. The warheads on icBMs and SLBMs used are counted by the number of vehicles returning to the rocket. Each re-entry vehicle can carry a warhead. Reduction of the strategic offensive: the treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on measures to reduce and limit strategic offensive armaments, also known as the new START treaty, came into force on 5 February 2011. Under the treaty, the United States and Russia must respect the central limits of the Strategic Arms Treaty by February 5, 2018; seven years after the treaty came into force. Each party has the flexibility to determine its own strategic forces structure within the overall limits of the treaty. These limit values are based on rigorous analysis by Ministry of Defence planners to support the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review. The Kremlin now stands in front of a White House that does not give priority to arms reduction, nor to – perhaps less.
The CBO estimate covers triad expenditures of nuclear delivery systems and command and control systems at the Ministry of Defence, as well as for nuclear warheads and their support infrastructure with the Department of Energy`s semi-autonomous National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Almost all elements of the U.S. nuclear arsenal will be upgraded over the next 20 years. Most of these efforts are in their infancy and others have not yet begun. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), first proposed in the early 1980s by President Ronald Reagan and finally signed in July 1991, forced the United States and the Soviet Union to reduce their strategic arsenals to 1,600 delivery vehicles, which carried no more than 6,000 warheads in accordance with the rules of the agreement. The agreement required the destruction of surplus delivery vehicles, which were verified through an intrusive control system including on-site inspections, regular exchanges of information (including telemetry) and the use of national technical means (e.g. satellites). The entry into force of the agreement was delayed for several years due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent efforts to de-incarcerate Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus, returning their nuclear weapons to Russia and making it part of the non-proliferation and launch I agreements.